8. Cost of Sales and Directly Related Costs

The following costs have been included in the operating result:

in thousands of EUR

Notes

2016

2015

Direct materials

772,508

756,180

Employee costs

1,100,583

1,038,248

Occupancy costs

479,990

468,247

Marketing & publicity costs

162,798

155,952

Depreciation

13

110,069

107,158

Amortization and impairments

14,15

53,323

45,822

Distribution costs

68,472

69,631

Other costs

214,043

215,105

Total costs

2,961,786

2,856,343

Occupancy costs include fixed and variable rent for stores, offices and other buildings under operating lease contracts of €396,585 (2015: €378,835).

The employee costs can be specified as follows:

in thousands of EUR

Notes

2016

2015

Salaries & wages

782,743

745,703

Social security

169,501

164,396

Pension costs - Defined benefit plans

28

3,520

-12,107

Pension costs - Defined contribution plans

15,686

13,366

Share-based payments

30

15,303

17,670

Other employee-related costs

113,830

109,220

1,100,583

1,038,248

The average number of employees within the Group during 2016 (excluding the associates and joint ventures) in full-time equivalents was 28,766 (2015: 27,510).